Playbooks Supplements

Water Management Techbook 2018

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8 | April 2018 | WATER MANAGEMENT: OVERVIEW including restrictions on disposal methods, guide- lines on recycling produced water and directives on acquiring freshwater. According to Kent Wilkins, planning and man- agement division chief for the OWRB, and Brent Halldorson, chairman for the Texas Water Recycling Association board, agencies are primarily looking to fine-tune the regulations that have come into existence in recent years. For instance, this session Wilkins said the Okla- homa Legislature will likely address marginal quality brackish water rights in the state for potential reuse for completions operations. "We only have the authority to permit water for 0 to 5,000 ppm of TDS [total dissolvable solids]," he said. "What we're looking at is getting [the OWRB] authorization to regulate from 5,000 to at least 10,000 ppm of TDS." Wilkins said the state's water use plan incentiv- izes the use of marginal quality brackish water for reuse in fracturing operations, but the state's rules do not allow it. "[Oklahoma's] well drillers, when they encoun- ter saltwater, they're supposed to plug that well back," he said. "So this would give [the OWRB] the framework to utilize that marginal quality water from 5,000 to 10,000 [ppm of TDS] and maybe even higher. The oil companies we've met with [have said] that if they can get 10,000 ppm of TDS to 15,000 ppm of TDS, they'd still like to use that water in lieu of the good freshwater, and we want them to." In November 2017 Texas' University Lands (UL) system, which manages the surface and mineral interests of 2.1 million acres across 19 counties in West Texas for the benefit of the state's Permanent University Fund, updated its requirements for build- ing freshwater fracturing pits. UL Executive Director Richard Brantley said the new requirements state that freshwater fracturing pits cannot contain more than 3,000 ppm of TDS. Brantley said that previously there were no restric- tions on TDS containments on UL lands. The new regulations help ensure that any water that leaks out of a fracturing pit is safe for the land. "Operators in about 2007 started building fresh- water frack pits, and we saw the technology changes as the pits got larger and larger," he said. "We began to have a healthy concern for the sodium chloride in that produced water." The 3,000 ppm of TDS mark is equivalent to that of Category 1 drinking water standards implemented by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality but is also more restrictive than guidelines offered by the RRC. "This focuses on the management, monitoring and controlling leak rates," Brantley said. "We believe this is in the best interest of the land." n Factors Affecting Disposition to Seismicity Presence and proximity to faults and fault networks Fault orientation relative to local stress fields Pore pressure and pathways Fault friction and structure Rock strength and brittleness Temperature Pathways to deep basement faults Fluid and pressure balance in reservoir Can be complex Higher permeability formations can provide more pathways for fluid and pressure transmission and dispersion Higher permeability faults can allow pore pressure diffusion to be channeled long distances Lower permeability faults can serve as bottleneck allowing stress to accumulate Cumulative injected volume Injection rate Injection pressure Fluid temperature Injection depth Reservoir Conditions Ex : Formation Permeability Ex : Injection Parameters Ex : FIGURE 1. This graphic depicts factors that influence induced seismicity events in hydraulic fracturing operations. (Image courtesy of EnergyMakers Advisory Group)

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