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Water Management Techbook 2018

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EPmag.com | April 2018 | 47 WATER MANAGEMENT: CASE STUDIES distilled water quality and was ideal for fracturing, drilling use or discharge into the environment with- out any worry of discharge violations. Having completed the process, the produced water underwent substantial improvement in qual- ity. An industry-respected third-party laboratory report showed the following results: • Barium reduced to 0.115 mg/l from the original 11,600 mg/l; • Iron reduced to 0.01 mg/l from 102 mg/l; • Magnesium reduced to 0.1 mg/l from 1,820 mg/l; • Strontium reduced to 0.113 mg/l from 7,270 mg/l; • Zinc reduced to 0.0039 mg/l from 6.7 mg/l; • Aluminum reduced to 0.0031 mg/l from 3 mg/l; and • All other metals were at a fraction from their start point; • Turbidity reduced to 0.18 mg/l from 226 mg/l; • TDS reduced to 144 from 318,000 mg/l • Chlorides reduced to 3.98 mg/l from 181,000 mg/l; and • TSS reduced to 5.4 mg/l from 297 mg/l. The pH can be adjusted with accuracy to any level specified to meet the producer's specific needs. To accomplish these results, Kaizen has devel- oped a protocol whereby all water is processed in real time, except for buffer capacity, before entering the company's equipment at certain intervals in the equipment and at the discharge stage. Therefore, the process greatly reduces the need for any large volume storage or transportation (thus reducing producer costs and environmental concerns) while processing any volume of water at a site. This also allows Kaizen to monitor and control each phase to ensure each step is meeting predetermined process standards. The Kaizen process is completed in two stages, with pH adjustment, solids removal, chemical destruction and metals removal completed using eight of the company's technologies in the first stage and nonconventional desalination in the second stage. The first stage is designed to remove all impu- rities from the produced water input stream, creating a pure brine for the second stage feedstock. This process allows Kaizen to keep all resultant fluids and solids pure, clean, nontoxic and nonhazardous. The water discharged is high grade and close to distilled quality, suitable for reuse in operations, Kaizen's dewatering cylinder works as part of the separation process for produced water. (Photo courtesy of Kaizen Fluid Systems)

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