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Water Management Techbook 2018

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30 | April 2018 | WATER MANAGEMENT: TECHNOLOGY bottom lines. We see a push toward modularization not only in upstream but also in downstream oil and gas. It seems to be becoming more popular because it does help to reduce the installed cost of technology." Fountain Quail's Halldorson said that right now one of the biggest drivers is logistics, more so than the actual treatment key performance indicators (KPIs). "What we're starting to see, especially in the Permian Basin, is fractures getting larger. We're talking about 600,000 bbls to 700,000 bbls per frack. Just a few years ago we were talking half that size." He added, "Just managing the water inventory when you're talking about recycling and reuse, moni- toring pits, monitoring the transfer and just getting the water where you need it with an ever-changing frack schedule is getting to be one of the industry's biggest headaches. "As a treatment company, we're being asked for ever-higher volumes to be treated with lower costs, which is kind of a no-brainer. That's always the goal, and it is our job to keep pushing the envelope. We have to be very flexible and adaptable to handle those higher rates," he said. Automated oxidation system Pit management is starting to become a big part of water logistics. Attention is being paid to tracking and knowing where the water is and how much is there, said Hydrozonix's Patton. "We developed a portable aeration system, and we're starting to see some growth in that area as well. People used to do conventional pit treatment by adding some chemicals to a pit periodically, but it was hard to mix the chemicals throughout the pit. This led to some very ineffective pit treatment pro- grams. A properly sized aeration system can replace pit treatments at a fraction of the cost," he said. According to Patton, in gathering systems they were adding oxidant before the gun barrels, which is where the oil/water separation takes place. In a gun barrel, the water goes from flowing at a steady rate to slowing down to allow the oil to rise and separate. Hydrogen sulfide begins forming in those tanks and bacteria accumulates. In one specific case an operator was adding a chemical biocide at a cost of about 10 cents/bbl. "We looked at that practice and realized they were injecting chemicals continuously, but the water qual- ity was fluctuating wildly," Patton said. "They were not regulating it at all because they had no way of mea- suring the water quality. We said, 'Let's automate that system. Instead of using chemicals, let's use ozone." Ozone is easier to use because it can be made from oxygen in the air, which means it is sustainable. The ozone is injected into the water and there is a mon- itoring system for water quality to know how much ozone is needed. "As the water quality worsens, more ozone is added, and when the quality is better, less ozone is added so you can monitor and maintain a consistent water quality," Patton said. "We ended up taking the old 10-cent/bbl chemical program and turned it into a 4-cent/bbl program while increasing the quality of the water." This system created a new recycling model. The foundation of that model is what Hydrozonix calls Hydro 3 Cide. "It is an in-line oxidation system that is fully automated," Patton added. "It fully regulates the injection of ozone based on the water quality you have. It allows us to optimize the water quality and maintain that there is no hydrogen sulfide in the gun barrel system, and no biofilm is growing." According to Patton, each system is in two ship- ping containers. The first holds the chillers, air compressors and heat-generating components. The second container has the oxygen concentrator, which takes the air from the compressor, stripping out the oxygen and separating the other gases. It takes the oxygen into an ozone generator, and the ozone is then injected into the water stream. The rejected gases—primarily nitrogen—are used as blanketing gases for safety on the gun barrel sys- tems. Because operators spend money to generate blanket gas, they are saving money by getting that reject gas for free. According to Patton, Hydrozonix also has another technology in the field in the Permian Basin, awaiting commissioning. The system, HydroFlare, consists The HydroFlare system is in the field in the Permian Basin awaiting commissioning. The system essentially converts the flare into an evaporator. (Photo courtesy of Hydrozonix)

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