Permian Basin 2017

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PERMIAN BASIN: TECHNOLOGY 58 | November 2017 | "We can pump upwards of 300,000 TDS [total dissolved solids] water and have chemistry to com- plement that," Padalecki said. "We just design the chemistry to fit the water. You have to treat fresh- water, and you treat produced water even more. We do have customers setting up surface facilities to blend or take in more produced water." Padalecki said higher levels of potassium, cal- cium and magnesium exist in produced water. "Depending on how high the levels get, these can act negatively with fluids and formations," he said. "But treatment may be able to get some of those out." Could residual chemicals from one fracture's pro- duced water ever become useful in the next fracture? "It hasn't come up yet," Padalecki said, "because in these higher water producing wells, the treating chemicals are pretty well diluted. Some of these chemicals don't reside—they go down, react and become neutralized." As Padalecki looks ahead, he sees trends in efficiencies. "We're going to have more and more produced water and blends," he said. "We may be getting more effective with the sand we use. We have bigger and bigger jobs, and we'd like to pump more sand, but it is not cost effective. Perhaps improved sand performance is the future." Dissolvable frack plugs are also catching on in the Permian. "We have several clients intrigued with the tech- nology," Padalecki said. Halliburton's Illusion dissolvable frack plug eliminates the need for intervention prior to put- ting the well on production, and provides zonal isolation for pump-down applications during well- bore stimulation. "We have several types that work at 150 degrees or more," Padalecki said. Dissolvable plugs eliminate drill-outs needed for conventional composite plugs and don't require special tools in the casing string. The large-bore ID allows operators to produce through the plug. It begins dissolving immediately following fracturing. "If the coiled tubing doesn't run as well as we'd like, we can run Illusion so the plugs won't be sit- ting there in perpetuity," Padalecki said. As more operators move into development, they deal with frack hits and bashing, or when a treat- ment on one well affects another. "If a parent well is producing, and you put a frack on a child well near it—and the distance is Halliburton stimulation operations in the Permian Basin have changed as produced water is introduced in the hydraulic fracturing program. (Photo courtesy of Halliburton)

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