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Water Management Techbook 2017

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30 | May 2017 | WATER MANAGEMENT: TECHNOLOGY process has the lowest operating cost compared to a conventional approach. Patton said Hydrozonix is using membranes for some sulfate removal work in the Permian Basin, which is one of the applications that is starting to grow. "We're experimenting right now with differ- ent coatings on membranes to decrease their foul- ing. We're also doing some studies with a vibrating membrane. We're also looking at some combinations of membranes with other pretreatment options to reduce the fouling, which is something we will be rolling out in the first quarter," he said. This will allow the use of membranes where they typically have not been used because of fouling concerns. Produced water storage, oil separation Operators are always looking for ways to be able to use produced water practically. They need to have a certain infrastructure to do that in a central location where they can store it so they have an adequate amount of water when it is needed, TETRA's Richie said. "Produced water usually has a good portion of hydrocarbons in it. If the water is going to be reused for fracking, then hydrocarbons are not an issue because these are being sent back downhole. But when you're going to store millions of gallons of water at a time, typically your permits are for storing produced water and are not permits to store oil," he said. "The oil in the water is not a chemical issue. It is a storage issue." Harvey developed the oil separator that is called the ORAPT system. It is a mobile, standalone system that basically accelerates the separation with the help of a chemical. The system is so effective that the customer can resell that oil, the company said. The customer is saving money on both sides, because the oil does not need to be disposed of, and the oil can be recaptured and sold. The amount of hydrocarbons being stripped is almost paying for the service. "Our customers have been happy that we've been able to catch that oil and then resell it. They don't have to use secondary means to remove it from storage volumes," Harvey said. Water storage is also an important part of Rock- water's water management solutions. The company offers aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) from 4,500 bbl to 60,000 bbl in capacity. A 60,000-bbl tank can be delivered on five trucks loads and erected in a single day. "That replaces 120 conventional frack tanks and associated trucking in and out of a location. This reduction in environmental footprint is extremely important to our customers. ASTs are not only a cost-effective solution compared to conventional storage but also eliminate a large number of poten- tial leak points associated with large manifolds used to connect multiple frack tanks. The AST is a single structure so the elimination of these multiple con- nections is a significant HSE benefit," Rockwater's Ladhani said. "ASTs are now commonly used for produced water storage as well. We were the first AST provider to receive permits to hold produced water in six different states." Stuart said Rockwater also has "nested" tank con- figurations that provide full secondary containment in the event there is ever any leakage from the primary tank. The nested tanks have become widely used for storing produced water. n Veolia's CoLD crystallization is applied to produced water with very high TDS to increase water recovery. (Photo courtesy of Veolia Water Technologies) Rockwater aboveground storage tanks are approved to store produced water in six states. Pictured here is a nested tank configuration to provide secondary containment. (Photo courtesy of Rockwater Energy Solutions)

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