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Water Management Techbook 2017

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EPmag.com | May 2017 | 29 WATER MANAGEMENT: TECHNOLOGY route and take measurements of the distance, eleva- tion and site specific things along the route that we have to be mindful of. We come back and plot that information into some software that we have devel- oped to ensure that we get the right equipment for the right job in the right spot," he said. "One of the other things the company is develop- ing right now is getting automation and telemetry into our delivery system where we are moving water over greater distances. Being able to monitor that equipment in real time with centralized visibility and know what's going on with the pumps, line pressure and flow rates allow us to have better communication. If there is a problem along the line, early warning or notification means you can find it quicker and respond to it faster." Donaldson added, "We can automatically shut down or idle down any part of or the whole transfer before the operator has time to react." One of the challenges that TETRA addressed is balancing produced water with other sources of water to meet the specifications for the input water for the fracturing fluid system. The company designed a water blending controller and its patented blending manifold to ensure the water is consistent throughout the entire fracturing specification. "Ultimately what our customers really require is consistency. They can dial in their frack chem- istries and work on a very narrow range. They don't like variation, and that is where the blending controller hits the spot by making sure that the input waters will be in the proper proportion," said Yannick Harvey, TETRA's water management engineering manager. Treatment for discharge The technology for producing low-cost potable water for drinking or agricultural purposes is the Holy Grail for water management companies. How- ever it is not really an issue because it is too expensive at this point for everybody, Richie said. "Every single black-box company out there is try- ing to develop technology to desalinate water. We're still a couple of years off. We're looking at different things, but eventually as regulations tighten around disposal or reinjection, I think there will be a market at efficient pricing," he continued. When it comes to discharging water into the envi- ronment, TDS must be removed. Sodium chloride is the No. 1 contaminant and requires advanced tech- nology to remove it, Veolia's Nagghappan said. Then there is boron. "Boron is not toxic to humans, but it is highly toxic to plants. Ammonia is the same way and it affects aquatic life. So we have to remove it from the water," he said. Depending on the salinity of the feed water, Veolia offers multiple technologies (membranes and ther- mal processes) for treatment of produced water for surface discharge. Veolia's OPUS II technology, which is a membrane-based process, is an ideal fit to clean the produced water from the southern Oklahoma oil fields to a high-quality product suitable for discharge. In the northern part of the state where TDS concen- trations in the produced water are higher, its CoLD crystallization technology can be applied on a brine solution after pretreatment. The CoLD crystallization With potential throughput ranging from 25,000 to 35,000 bbl/d, the TETRA ORAPT helps pull out as much oil as possible prior to filtering and blending produced water—down to 50 to 100 parts per million. (Photo courtesy of TETRA Technologies Inc.) Veolia's OPUS II technology is a membrane-based process that generates effluent suitable for discharge to surface water or reuse for crop irrigation—a significant benefit in water-strapped regions. (Photo courtesy of Veolia Water Technologies)

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