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Water Management Techbook 2017

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Page 28 of 55 | May 2017 | 27 WATER MANAGEMENT: TECHNOLOGY This on-the-fly disinfection system is operating in the Permian Basin. (Photo courtesy of Hydrozonix) to come up with other options," he said. "But they can't commit to long-term programs because as activity increases somewhere down the road, they want to use that produced water again to recycle, because that is their lowest cost option." One option Hydrozonix took on was to update a conventional evaporation systems. "This evaporation system will be rolling out in late February with some smaller installations already scheduled for first-quar - ter 2017. This is basically a portable system to move from well pad to well pad and use existing natural gas to evaporate the produced water," Patton said. Since these are not permanent installations, an operator can have a long-term contract with the unit and move it from area to area as needed. This is especially useful in areas where it is economically or logistically not feasible to collect field gas and put it into a gathering system. "Under current regulations you can use the stranded gas in an evaporation system. We think this new offering is a critical component to being able to have an overall produced water management program that is sustainable," he said. Hydrozonix also is retrofitting flare systems that have scrubbing systems using produced water by basi- cally converting the flare into an evaporator. "It is a lot cheaper than going out and buying an evaporator. We are in the process of implementing that design on nine flare systems in the Eagle Ford. Those were scheduled to be deployed in the first quarter," he said. The company has another technology under devel- opment with a major multinational company. "It is a coated media that can be used to not only remove suspended solids but also iron and oil, including oil that is dispersed and emulsified. You can produce an iron-free, oil-free and solids-free product. We are still trying to finalize the exclusivity for the product with the company," Patton said. Variable technologies for different plays Even though the emphasis on water management in Oklahoma has been on reducing induced seismicity, the challenge Oklahoma operators are facing is that the water in different plays in the state varies from north to south. "There is no one technological solution that will treat all these waters. We need variable technologies that can adapt to these kinds of shale formations because the salinity, characterized by total dissolved solids [TDS] in the produced water, change substan- tially from south to central to the northern part of the state. There is no silver bullet for these different applications," said Lnsp "Naggs" Nagghappan, senior director, business development, upstream oil and gas for Veolia Water Technologies. In the Mississippi Lime play in northern Okla- homa, producers dispose of water primarily through deep-well injection. The disposal is really inexpen- sive in northern Oklahoma, but there are issues with induced seismicity associated with injection of produced water. The central part of the state, where the STACK region is, is yet to have the seismic issues, although the producers are concerned about the future impacts. "The challenge they are facing is high disposal cost. They're spending a lot of money because they don't have the network of piping that the northern part of the state does," he said. "In the southern part of Oklahoma in the Ardmore and Arkoma basins where they are facing a drought and high disposal costs, they don't have enough water for fracking." Operators in northern Oklahoma are looking for a reliable disposal solution other than injection. "If they are actively fracking and if they have a way to get that water back as frack fluid, then reuse is the most economical way to get rid of the water. It makes sense where they have an active drilling program," Nagghappan said. For reuse, only some of the contaminants must be removed from the water. For example, reuse technol- ogies don't touch TDS. "We just remove the partic- ulates, which are oil, solids and bacteria, along with scale formers like iron and manganese, and dissolved gases like H 2 S," he said. The company's ShaleFlow technology is used for removing these contaminants. The compact system is mounted on three mobile trailers. It has a system

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