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Water Management Techbook 2017

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22 | May 2017 | WATER MANAGEMENT: BEST PRACTICES to use multiple water source types with minimal or no treatment to provide a crosslinked gel system, significantly cuts costly steps from the full water cycle by reducing or eliminating the cost and pressure on area roads arising from transporting water over long distances. In the Williston Basin of North Dakota, the xWA- TER service was used to hydraulically fracture a two-lateral well using filtered but otherwise untreated produced water. The operations used 7 million gal- lons of water, including 2.2. million gallons that were crosslinked, to place proppant in the Bakken and Three Forks formations. The fluid used standard oilfield chemical prac- tices and equipment and is based on an industry standard, widely available and inexpensive polysac- charide gelling agent. During the operation, engi- neers observed treating pressures that indicated better near wellbore proppant transport than is typically seen in the area. The operation eliminated the need for freshwater and disposal of produced water, which Schlumberger calculates took 600 trucks off the road. Production from the treated formations is reported to equal or exceed of offset wells of similar design. Conclusion Within the traditional business model, water treat- ment companies acted essentially as manufacturers who built and installed equipment according to cli- ent specifi cation. Their involvement after the equip- ment was online was confi ned to maintenance as needed. But with increasingly stringent regulations on contaminants and the growing economic impor- tance of water supply and demand in the economics of North American unconventional resource pro- duction, operators are coming to view water treat- ment in a different light. "Today, we merge responsibility for performance with inherent expertise," said Schlumberger's Shannon. "Clients often install various water treatment solutions but refrain from utilizing the solution experts when operating them. So, the approach now is to take own- ership and utilize our water treatment expertise to not only communicate to the operator what these solutions do but also ensure they perform as expected." ■ A Gastar Exploration drilling and completion engineer checked the lines feeding into a freshwater frack-fluid pond in Kingfisher County. The pond stores about 300,000 bbl of water pumped from the Cimarron River, 10 miles away. (Photo by Tom Fox, courtesy of Hart Energy's Oil and Gas Investor)

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