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Water Management Techbook 2017

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EPmag.com | May 2017 | 21 WATER MANAGEMENT: BEST PRACTICES We aim to become an integral part of our customers' planning, development, execution; delivering a proactive, sustainable water management plan. Learn more about Select's services and what we can do for you. Selectenergyservices.com W e fin d w at e r so lut io n s . in a polymer-based, cross-linked fracturing fluid. Two stages of the job were fractured using 100% treated water and because disposal and freshwater costs were reduced, the operation realized significant savings. Taking f lowback and produced water use to the next level, engineers and scientists at Schlum- berger have expanded the concept by approaching water recycling from a different direction. Instead of conditioning available water to be compat- ible with the formation and fracture f luid, the company provides a service that allows produced water-based fracturing f luid formulas that use untreated produced water. The new offering from Schlumberger is called the xWATER integrated water-flexible fracture fluid deliv- ery service. The design of the fracture fluids, explained Max Nikolaev, stimulation technologies production champion, allows operators to use water that has gone through little or no treatment to build fracture fluids. "The ultimate goal," he said, "is to be able to build a fluid based on any available water source." The theory behind the practice is reminiscent of the quality window concept, which accounts for water quality variance. In this case, however, the concept of flexibility in backflow water quality refers to ranges of salinity levels, temperatures, pH, sulfates and metals. Using the xWATER service, fracture fluids can be built that are compatible with water having a wide range of salt levels and other characteristics of the target formation. "We know the composition of the formation water coming back, so our chemistry anticipates this," says Nikolaev. "This is what we are going to see and we make sure the chemistry is going to work with what- ever water composition is coming back to surface." The process begins with produced water analysis. Fracture fluid designs built on those analyses are then modeled and tested at every stage of the water cycle from pumping to flowback. The service allows operators to build fracturing fluids using most types of available water sources such as brackish groundwater or seawater. The flexibility

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