Permian Basin 2018

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PERMIAN BASIN: TECHNOLOGY 42 | October 2018 | and automated valves to automatically distribute water evenly across the frack tanks on site. It does this in concert with the pumps' own logic control- lers. Regardless of manifold demands, the pumps will not violate a preprogrammed hierarchy of safety protocols. "So we are supplying the water and the pumpers are pulling it," Banda explained. "Keeping those things exactly synced up is virtually impossible. When you have a row of frack tanks, the issue is demand variability, and, at times, supply variability. Pressure pumpers never want those frack tanks to become too full or too empty. The whole system needs to be dynamic to feedback. As frack intensity in the Permian increases, we depend on a system like this that is highly mobile and self-adjusts to the conditions at each location." Another pair of sought-after Select assets in the Permian is Select's Automated Proportioning Systems (APS) and their quick chemical dosing trailers. The APS allows customers to dynamically maintain a mix of freshwater and produced water. Both solutions are ideal because there are produced water constituents that could become problematic during fracturing without some level of treatment or dilution. "Every situation is going to be different and the water chemistry is going to vary across the region as will the operator's standards," Banda said. Select's APS system is mounted on a standard trailer with two incoming lines and one discharge line. Each of the incoming lines has an electro- chemical sensor, a flow meter, a flow switch and a pressure sensor. The water in those lines is con- stantly being tested using that sensors linked to an onboard controller that controls a pair of elec- tronically actuated valves to achieve a consistent chemical makeup. The discharge leg also supports a static mixer and a low pressure mixing area to ensure a thoroughly homogenized flow before it leaves the skid. "This requirement makes that section fairly long—about 28 feet," Banda noted. "It is amazing how little the water flows mix in a short distance without a concerted effort to make them mix. The system allows you to set a conductivity target and maintain it without any specialized labor. You might not always be able to dilute your way out of a problem with water chemistry, but if you can this is a quick and affordable solution." Select's dosing trailers have been in service for nearly a year. They are self-contained, automated dosing units that release a specific concentration of chemicals that is dynamic to flow. Each unit boasts a 10-in. dosing spool that circulates the water. The unit is built with high-alloy stainless steel so powerful oxidizers, water-based chemi- cals, oil-based chemicals, etc. can all be used. The trailer has capacity for up to four separate totes and includes a self-powered onboard command center for local control and monitoring. The dosing itself is automated. "We are impartial to what chemical the operator wants to use," Banda said. "The common one being used now is peracetic acid (PAA). So we can use that, we can also use hydrogen peroxide, bleach, scale inhibitors, etc." The use of recycled water is a bit trickier in the Permian Midland Basin due to the fact that much of the region's producing wells don't flow back much water. Back in 2015, when Approach Resources shut down its drilling program due to low commodities prices, it shifted its focus to final- izing its fully integrated 329,000 bbl water recycling facility, which has helped the company reduce well costs and lease operating expense (LOE). "I cannot over-emphasize using produced water to frack with; it saves money and makes better wells," said Approach's Craft. "When we started working on the technology of cleaning and recy- cling the water there were not many workable blue- prints available. During the design stage we were told by most of the water companies—there weren't many back then—that it was cost prohibitive and probably not achievable to clean the water to our high KPI requirements. We told them 'We'll see.' So we designed a process and a system to where not only could we clean it, but we could take it down our initial KPI requirements. In the wells that we utilize recycled water on, they are better wells than the ones where you don't run recycled water. The reason for that is the minerals in the shale. The shale is made up of mixed layers and what we saw utilizing low chloride water was concerning;

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