Hydraulic Fracturing Techbook 2018

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82 | August 2018 | HYDRAULIC FRACTURING: CASE STUDIES A s oil and gas operators continue to streamline operations in the office and the field, their reliance on data for uncovering efficiency levers is becoming permanent. The gold in the data is worth mining, so industry generally is looking at data and analytics in new ways to enhance deci- sion-making about operations, sales, customer ser- vice and IT, for example. Data can be statistics-based or physics-based. The statistics-based method, also known as Big Data analytics, is interesting for the oil field because the method offers insight into production performance. Operators are investigating this method to predict a new well's cumulative first-year production using a set of operational and completion characteristics such as lithology, well depth, stage length, fluid volume, proppant loading and cluster spacing. A physics-based method includes fracture mod- eling and simulation of fluid flow in a network of induced and natural fracture systems coupled with geomechanics. Calibration of these models requires measurements of the fracture geometry created through hydraulic fracturing. Acquiring fracture geometry for a meaningful number of wells has been challenging because the older methods of data acquisition are complicated, intrusive and expensive. Overall, this older technology disrupts field operations, requires additional wellsite personnel and equipment, and is expensive to deploy. Fracture geometry also has been missing from statistical data analytics for these same reasons. Including fracture geometry as a variable for statis- tical data analytics would improve the predictability of these models by linking the geometry of the created fractures to completion parameters and production. A new technology has been developed specifically to work around all of these challenges, enabling operators to have a full view of the fracture geometry on every well. The theory of this new, physics-based method is nonintrusive pressure data acquisition and analy- sis. The simple, accurate, affordable pressure-based fracture map—with fracture geometry of half-length, height, azimuth and asymmetry—is guiding operators to make informed, better completion decisions. Pressure-based fracture map This new oilfield diagnostic application—the inte- grated modeling approach for geometric evaluation of fractures or IMAGE Frac technology —is field proven in more than 3,500 hydraulic fracturing stages throughout the U.S. and in Canada. The tech- nology is based on the poroelastic pressure response that occurs during normal hydraulic fracturing of treatment wells. The pressure response is recorded by a surface pressure gauge from one or more mon- itor stages in wells adjacent to the treatment well, or what is described as the monitor well. These wells can be interchangeable. A new physics-based method provides nonintrusive pressure data acquisition and analysis to develop accurate pressure-based fracture maps. Pressure Data Analysis Guides Operators to Better Completion Decisions By Sudhendu Kashikar Reveal Energy Services

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