Hydraulic Fracturing Techbook 2018

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74 | August 2018 | HYDRAULIC FRACTURING: LOGISTICS performance of Northern White. That has become very important in the Permian where there are a few dozen Tier-2 or even Tier-3 sand producers trying to upgrade their operations." ChemTerra manufactures some of its own coatings and chemicals, and licenses some manufacturing to contract formulators. "EOR is usually considered secondary or tertiary recovery," O'Neil said, "but we have published papers and received patents for chemistry that turns frack water into the equivalent of a waterflood. We are calling it 'post-frack EOR.' In proppants, I can't tell you the last time we pumped ceramics in the U.S. or in Canada." Jobs with more than 500,000 lb of sand per stage sand and/or 500,000 gal of water per stage are con- sidered to be big and usually operate at treating pressures above 10,000 psi to 11,000 psi, said Jesse Lee, chemistry portfolio manager for well services at Schlumberger. But economy and effectiveness are the goals, not sheer size. "Our offering is focused on lessening the amount of expenditures regarding water management," he said. "We have fracturing fluid technology that has enhanced compatibility with produced water, which subsequently reduces the needs for water treatment, transportation and disposal. Consul- tation includes optimizing f luid formulation, inorganic-scale minimization, treatment design and execution." The trend to regional water banks is "entirely tech- nical and economical feasible," Lee added. "The degree of adaptation will mainly depend on the availability of water. If it becomes scarce due to high fracturing activity, then the model where one well's produced water is the frack water for another well will become highly desirable." Schlumberger has developed frack f luid tech- nology, called X-Water, which has an integrated water-f lexible f luid delivery service. Lee noted, "It is relatively insensitive to water quality; there- fore, we do not foresee any major changes in f luid recipes. However, one might need to incorporate additional scale inhibitor to prevent inorganic scale formation." n

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