Hydraulic Fracturing Techbook 2018

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60 | August 2018 | HYDRAULIC FRACTURING: BIG DATA Dixit provided an example of how Halliburton uses data from offset wells. "We don't need to repeat the same processes if we have a good enough idea—based on the offset well analysis—what the design is going to be section by sec- tion," he said. "What we can [analyze] for time, depth, cost, risk—all of those elements—we can auto-pop- ulate those designs and use machine learning [to automate the design and development of the well]." Halliburton's DecisionSpace platform provides the integration and foundation for the Digital Well Program, and was recently applied by an operator in the Marcellus Shale. According to a Halliburton case history, the operator needed to quickly choose drilling locations in more than 450,000 acres of treacherous terrain. The task included optimizing the use of slots within pads, increasing lateral length while decreasing the number of pads and identifying sweet spots for priority drilling. The Halliburton team used a 3-D earth model and a well-planning workflow to optimize drilling locations, lateral length and well orientation. The operation resulted in $45 million in savings in pad construction while the operator gained nearly 2 mil- lion ft of lateral length in fracturing operations. Hal- liburton reported the number of drilling days was reduced by more than 520 days, saving the operator more than $25 million. Understanding fractures Reveal Energy Services applies sensor data acquired from pressure gauges and bridge plugs to build pressure-based fracture maps. Those data enable the gathering of hydraulic fracture geometries and cluster efficiencies. Sudhendu Kashikar, CEO of Reveal Energy Ser- vices, said these fracture maps are the result of an approach using pressure data as the basis for com- pletion design information. The fracture maps, which Kashikar said have been widely adopted throughout the industry, have been evaluated on thousands of fracture stages and can be part of an overall greater diagnostic data acquisition and analysis for under- standing other completion design attributes. Those attributes include stage length, number of clusters, proppant loading and production. "There could be a scenario where [an operator has] an increase in production but really doesn't know how that's impacting the fracture geometry," Kashi- kar said. "There is a case where, given a change in completion parameters, you could actually be getting smaller fractures. Instead of a 500-ft fracture, you're getting a 400-ft or 450-ft fracture, but still getting the same production because the underlying rock quality is slightly different. But if I don't measure the geometry, I have no way of knowing that. I have a correlation that shows me that a change in comple- tion parameters gives me an increase in production, but I'm missing the link to the fracture geometry." He said by having the link to fracture geometry, operators can determine if their well spacing is still accurate, and if it is possible to produce more hydro- carbons by changing the well spacing. "So, the fracture geometry becomes one more parameter, an important one, that can bridge the gap between completion parameters and production," Kashikar said. Reveal Energy Services' system also works to cal- culate a qualitative indicator of cluster efficiency, which Kashikar said can determine if a treatment in a particular well in a particular stage provides good fluid and cluster efficiency or poor efficiencies. "Based on that, operators can make the decision to either change their cluster design or start using some diversion to improve their fluid distribution," he said. "Let's say an operator chooses to use a diversion technique to try and improve that fluid distribution. We can then analyze in near-real time whether that diverter drop has been effective at improving the fluid distribution. If it's not, they can try tweaking that design." Kashikar said operators have the ability to change the quantity, the timing and the number of diverter drops to get rapid feedback on a stage-by-stage basis so by the time they frack one well, they have tested several different designs and found the one that con- sistently provides good cluster and fluid efficiencies. "We have several operators now that are using that data to test and improve their design parameters in terms of diverter drops and the number of clusters," Kashikar said. A holistic view An emerging approach for well design includes ana- lyzing the full life cycle of the process—Sundararajan likened it a doctor recommending and providing treatment for a lifelong patient from birth to death. Companies like Ayata and BHGE refer to the con- cept as taking a holistic approach to well designs. Ayata's system combines data from geologic, geo- physical, petrophysical, drilling, completions and production operations to produce a model that allows the user to instantaneously project production values. Michael Smith-Palmer, director of strategic accounts for Ayata, said the company's software has been run on more than 14,000 shale wells in North

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